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Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Outcomes of Patients with Kawasaki Disease

      Objective

      To evaluate the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) with time to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, length of stay (LOS), and coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in patients with Kawasaki disease.

      Study design

      We examined the relationship of SES in 915 patients treated at a large academic center between 2000 and 2017. Neighborhood SES was measured using a US census-based score derived from 6 measures related to income, education, and occupation. Linear and logistic regression were used to examine the association of SES with number of days of fever at time of treatment, LOS, and CAA.

      Results

      Patients in the lowest SES quartile were treated later than patients with greater SES (7 [IQR 5, 9] vs 6 [IQR 5, 8] days, P = .01). Patients in the lowest SES quartile were more likely to be treated after 10 days of illness, with an OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.8). In multivariable analysis, SES remained an independent predictor of the number of days of fever at time of treatment (P = .01). Patients in the lowest SES quartile had longer LOS than patients with greater SES (3 [IQR 2, 5] vs 3 [IQR 2, 4], P = .007). In subgroup analysis of white children, those in the lowest SES quartile vs quartiles 2-4 were more likely to develop large/giant CAA 17 (12%) vs 30 (6%), P = .03.

      Conclusions

      Lower SES is associated with delayed treatment, prolonged LOS, and increased risk of large/giant CAA. Novel approaches to diagnosis and education are needed for children living in low-SES neighborhoods.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      BCH (Boston Children's Hospital), CAA (Coronary artery aneurysm), IVIG (Intravenous immunoglobulin), LOS (Length of stay), SES (Socioeconomic status)
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