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Text Message Intervention (TEACH) Improves Quality of Life and Patient Activation in Celiac Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial

      Objective

      To determine the impact of the Text Message Educational Automated Compliance Help (TEACH) text message intervention as a pragmatic approach for patient engagement among adolescents with celiac disease (CD) as measured by gluten-free diet (GFD) adherence, patient activation, and quality of life (QOL).

      Study design

      Randomized controlled trial with patient recruitment at a pediatric, university-based hospital and through social media; 61 participants ages 12-24 years with CD diagnosed at least 1 year were enrolled. The TEACH intervention cohort received 45 unique text messages over a 3-month study period while the control group received standard of care treatment. Primary outcome measures included objective markers of GFD adherence included serum tissue transglutaminase IgA and deamidated gliadin peptide IgA levels. Secondary patient-reported outcomes collected via online survey included the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test, National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Short Form measure of QOL, Celiac Symptom Index, and Patient Activation Measure. All measures were assessed at enrollment and after the 3-month study period. Statistical analysis performed using the 2-tailed paired Student t test.

      Results

      Among the TEACH intervention group, there was significant improvement comparing enrollment scores with 3-month follow-up scores in patient activation (Patient Activation Measure score 63.1 vs 72.5, P = .01) and QOL (NIH PROMIS Global Mental Health 50.8 vs 53.3, P = .01 and NIH PROMIS Global Physical Health 50.8 vs 57.7, P = .03). There was no statistically significant difference in patient-reported or objectively measured GFD adherence.

      Conclusions

      TEACH is an effective intervention among patients with CD to improve patient activation and QOL, even among a cohort with GFD adherence at baseline.

      Trial registration

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      CD (Celiac disease), CDAT (Celiac Dietary Adherence Test), CSI (Celiac Symptom Index), DGP (Deamidated gliadin peptide), GFD (Gluten-free diet), NIH (National Institutes of Health), PAM (Patient Activation Measure), PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System), QOL (Quality of life), REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture), TEACH (Text Message Educational Automated Compliance Help), TTG (Tissue transglutaminase)
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