Advertisement

Response to Name in Infants Developing Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Prospective Study

Published:February 02, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.12.071

      Objective

      To examine longitudinal patterns of response to name from 6-24 months of age in infants at high and low risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

      Study design

      A response to name task was tested at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age in 156 infant siblings of children with ASD (high-risk) or typical development (low-risk). At 36 months of age, participants were classified into 1 of 3 outcome groups: group with ASD (n = 20), high-risk group without ASD (n = 76), or low-risk group without ASD (n = 60). Differences in longitudinal performance were assessed using generalized estimating equations, and sensitivity and specificity for identifying ASD were calculated. Differences in age 36-month functioning were examined between infants who developed ASD and repeatedly vs infrequently failed to respond to name.

      Results

      At 9 months of age, infants developing ASD were more likely to fail to orient to their names, persisting through 24 months. Sensitivity/specificity for identifying ASD based on at least 1 failure between 12 and 24 months were estimated at .70 in this sample. One-half of the infants who developed ASD had repeated failures in this timeframe, and demonstrated lower age 36-month receptive language, and earlier diagnosis of ASD than infants with ASD who had infrequent failures.

      Conclusions

      In addition to recommended routine broad-based and ASD-specific screening, response to name should be regularly monitored in infants at risk for ASD. Infants who consistently fail to respond to their names in the second year of life may be at risk not only for ASD but also for greater impairment by age 3 years.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      ADOS (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule), ASD (Autism spectrum disorder), PPV (Positive predictive value)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic and Personal
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The Journal of Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Mandel D.R.
        • Jusczyk P.W.
        • Pisoni D.B.
        Infants recognition of the sound patterns of their own names.
        Psychol Sci. 1995; 6: 314-317
        • Imafuku M.
        • Hakuno Y.
        • Uchida-Ota M.
        • Yamamoto J.
        • Minagawa Y.
        “Mom called me!” Behavioral and prefrontal responses of infants to self-names spoken by their mothers.
        Neuroimage. 2014; 103: 476-484
        • Tateuchi T.
        • Itoh K.
        • Nakada T.
        Neural mechanisms underlying the orienting response to subject's own name: an event-related potential study.
        Psychophysiology. 2012; 49: 786-791
        • Parise E.
        • Friederici A.D.
        • Striano T.
        “Did you call me?” 5-month-old infants own name guides their attention.
        PLoS ONE. 2010; 5 (e14208)
        • Palomo R.
        • Belinchón M.
        • Ozonoff S.
        Autism and family home movies: a comprehensive review.
        J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006; 27: S59-68
        • Osterling J.
        • Dawson G.
        Early recognition of children with autism: a study of first birthday home videotapes.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 1994; 24: 247-257
        • Osterling J.A.
        • Dawson G.
        • Munson J.A.
        Early recognition of 1-year-old infants with autism spectrum disorder versus mental retardation.
        Dev Psychopathol. 2002; 14: 239-251
        • Werner E.
        • Dawson G.
        • Osterling J.
        • Dinno N.
        Brief report: recognition of autism spectrum disorder before one year of age: a retrospective study based on home videotapes.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2000; 30: 157-162
        • Wetherby A.M.
        • Woods J.
        • Allen L.
        • Cleary J.
        • Dickinson H.
        • Lord C.
        Early indicators of autism spectrum disorders in the second year of life.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2004; 34: 473-493
        • Nadig A.
        • Ozonoff S.
        • Young G.S.
        • Rozga A.
        • Sigman M.
        • Rogers S.J.
        A prospective study of response to name in infants at risk for autism.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007; 161: 378-383
        • Lord C.
        • Risi S.
        • Lambrecht L.
        • Cook E.H.
        • Leventhal B.L.
        • DiLavore P.C.
        • et al.
        The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2000; 30: 205-223
        • Rutter M.
        • Bailey A.
        • Lord C.
        Social communication questionnaire: manual.
        Western Psychological Services, 2003
        • Ozonoff S.
        • Young G.S.
        • Belding A.
        • Hill M.
        • Hill A.
        • Hutman T.
        • et al.
        The broader autism phenotype in infancy: when does it emerge?.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014; 53: 398-407
        • Bryson S.E.
        • Zwaigenbaum L.
        • McDermott C.
        • Rombough V.
        • Brian J.
        The Autism Observation Scale for Infants: scale development and reliability data.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2008; 38: 731-738
        • Mullen E.M.
        Mullen scales of early learning.
        American Guidance Service, Circle Pines (MN)1995
        • Sparrow S.S.
        • Balla D.A.
        • Cicchetti D.V.
        Vineland adaptive behavior scales.
        Second ed. American Guidance Service, Inc, Circle Pines (MN)2005
        • Zeger S.L.
        • Liang K.
        Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes.
        Biometrics. 1986; 42: 121-130
        • Landa R.J.
        • Gross A.L.
        • Stuart E.A.
        • Faherty A.
        Developmental trajectories in children with and without autism spectrum disorders: the first 3 years.
        Child Dev. 2013; 84: 429-442
        • Ozonoff S.
        • Iosif A.
        • Baguio F.
        • Cook I.C.
        • Hill M.M.
        • Hutman T.
        • et al.
        A prospective study of the emergence of early behavioral signs of autism.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010; 49: 256-266
        • Yucel R.M.
        Multiple imputation inference for multivariate multilevel continuous data with ignorable non-response.
        Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2008; 366: 2389-2403
        • Rubin D.B.
        Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys.
        Wiley, New York (NY)1987
        • Rydz D.
        • Shevell M.I.
        • Majnemer A.
        • Oskoui M.
        Topical review: developmental screening.
        J Child Neurol. 2005; 20: 4-21
        • Gabrielsen T.P.
        • Farley M.
        • Speer L.
        • Villalobos M.
        • Baker C.N.
        • Miller J.
        Identifying autism in a brief observation.
        Pediatrics. 2015; 135: e330-8
        • Estes A.
        • Zwaigenbaum L.
        • Gu H.
        • St. John T.
        • Paterson S.
        • Elison J.T.
        • et al.
        Behavioral, cognitive, and adaptive development in infants with autism spectrum disorder in the first 2 years of life.
        J Neurodev Disord. 2015; 7: 24
        • Dawson G.
        • Toth K.
        • Abbott R.
        • Osterling J.
        • Munson J.
        • Estes A.
        • et al.
        Early social attention impairments in autism: social orienting, joint attention, and attention to distress.
        Dev Psychol. 2004; 40: 271-283
        • Chevallier C.
        • Kohls G.
        • Troiani V.
        • Brodkin E.S.
        • Schultz R.T.
        The social motivation theory of autism.
        Trends Cogn Sci. 2012; 16: 231-239