Evidence Based Physical Activity for School-age Youth

  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this work.
    William B. Strong
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: William B. Strong, MD, 3209 Huxley Dr, Augusta, GA 30909.
    Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this work.
    Robert M. Malina
    Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Cameron J.R. Blimkie
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Stephen R. Daniels
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Rodney K. Dishman
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Bernard Gutin
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Albert C. Hergenroeder
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Aviva Must
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Patricia A. Nixon
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • James M. Pivarnik
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Thomas Rowland
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Stewart Trost
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • François Trudeau
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia; Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Exercise Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Sports Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Pediatric Cardiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts; Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Departement des Sciences de l'Activite Physique, Université du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, Canada
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  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this work.

      Objectives

      To review the effects of physical activity on health and behavior outcomes and develop evidence-based recommendations for physical activity in youth.

      Study design

      A systematic literature review identified 850 articles; additional papers were identified by the expert panelists. Articles in the identified outcome areas were reviewed, evaluated and summarized by an expert panelist. The strength of the evidence, conclusions, key issues, and gaps in the evidence were abstracted in a standardized format and presented and discussed by panelists and organizational representatives.

      Results

      Most intervention studies used supervised programs of moderate to vigorous physical activity of 30 to 45 minutes duration 3 to 5 days per week. The panel believed that a greater amount of physical activity would be necessary to achieve similar beneficial effects on health and behavioral outcomes in ordinary daily circumstances (typically intermittent and unsupervised activity).

      Conclusion

      School-age youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate, enjoyable, and involves a variety of activities.
      HDL-C ( High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level), LDL-C ( Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level), MS ( Metabolic syndrome)