Intestinal Microbiota Development in Preterm Neonates and Effect of Perinatal Antibiotics

  • Silvia Arboleya
    Affiliations
    Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ Present address: Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain.
    Borja Sánchez
    Footnotes
    ∗ Present address: Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain.
    Affiliations
    Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain
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  • Christian Milani
    Affiliations
    Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
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  • Sabrina Duranti
    Affiliations
    Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
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  • Gonzalo Solís
    Affiliations
    Pediatrics Service, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, SESPA, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
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  • Nuria Fernández
    Affiliations
    Pediatrics Service, Hospital de Cabueñes, Servicio de Salud Pública del Principado de Asturias (SESPA), Gijón, Asturias, Spain
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  • Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán
    Affiliations
    Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain
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  • Marco Ventura
    Affiliations
    Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
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  • Abelardo Margolles
    Affiliations
    Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain
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  • Miguel Gueimonde
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Miguel Gueimonde, PhD, Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA-CSIC), Paseo Rio Linares s/n, 33300 Villaviciosa, Spain.
    Affiliations
    Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ Present address: Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain.
Published:October 25, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.09.041

      Objectives

      To assess the establishment of the intestinal microbiota in very low birthweight preterm infants and to evaluate the impact of perinatal factors, such as delivery mode and perinatal antibiotics.

      Study design

      We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence-based microbiota analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the establishment of the intestinal microbiota. We also evaluated factors affecting the microbiota, during the first 3 months of life in preterm infants (n = 27) compared with full-term babies (n = 13).

      Results

      Immaturity affects the microbiota as indicated by a reduced percentage of the family Bacteroidaceae during the first months of life and by a higher initial percentage of Lactobacillaceae in preterm infants compared with full term infants. Perinatal antibiotics, including intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis, affects the gut microbiota, as indicated by increased Enterobacteriaceae family organisms in the infants.

      Conclusions

      Prematurity and perinatal antibiotic administration strongly affect the initial establishment of microbiota with potential consequences for later health.
      FTVDBF ( Full-term, vaginally delivered, exclusively breast-fed), IAP ( Intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis), NEC ( Necrotizing enterocolitis), OTU ( Operational taxonomic unit), PCR ( Polymerase chain reaction), qPCR ( Quantitative PCR), rRNA ( Ribosomal RNA), VLBW ( Very low birthweight)
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      Linked Article

      • Prematurity and Perinatal Antibiotics: A Tale of Two Factors Influencing Development of the Neonatal Gut Microbiota
        The Journal of PediatricsVol. 166Issue 3
        • In Brief
          Despite robust global research efforts, preterm birth remains a relatively intractable and pervasive problem. Indeed, preterm birth continues to impact >10% of live births in the US, and is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide.1 Compared with full-term births, preterm deliveries are typified by more frequent use of perinatal antibiotics, that is, antibiotics administered either intra-partum to the mother, or post-partum to the newborn. The decision to treat with perinatal antibiotics is a clinical judgment based on perceived risks and benefits to both mother and baby.
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